About the Project

Building a cognitive model for the behavioral factors

that affect the Hajj crowd's movement during the scheduling system.

Raising crowd management efficiency in light of the plan to increase the number of Hajj and Umrah visitors in some sacred sites with limited capacity.

Non-compliance with the instructions creates unsafe crowds leading to not using the available capacity.

Large cultural diversity makes it challenging to communicate and predict crowd behavior.

 The research project aims to improve

the scheduling system

of crowds during Hajj,

by understanding

the nature of scheduling

problems behaviourally

before testing the importance

of different causes.

The project consists of three stages,

starting with a systematic literature review,

followed by qualitative exploration, including

focus groups


participant observation

Finally, there will be a quantitative test of hypotheses

and build the cognitive model.

Based on this empirical work,

we will make recommendations to improve scheduling practice.

A cognitive model will add psychological validity to future Hajj crowds computer models by providing behavioural factors shown to be important.